ARTICLES

Written by a variety of authors both from practice and from academia, our selection of articles, demonstrates the high quality and format of content throughout this three volume reference.
 
Models of the Measurement Process (PDF) Selection of Sensors (PDF) Typical Signals Arising in Measurement (PDF)
 
Introduction to the Dynamic Regime of Measurement Systems (PDF) Common Sources of Errors in Measurement Systems (PDF) Calibration and Standards in Flow Measurement (PDF)
 
Signals in the Presence of Noise (PDF) Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) in General (PDF) Principles of MEMS (PDF)
 
Internet Calibration (PDF) Instrument Evaluation (PDF) Scheduling Systems (PDF)
 
(The above PDF files require Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you do not have this you can download it free of charge here).
 
Foundations of Measuring | Standards and Calibration | Error and Uncertainty | Measuring System Specification | Measuring System Design | Modelling Measuring Systems | Elements – A: Sensors | Elements – B Signal Conditioning | Elements – C: Data Acquisition Systems | Elements – D: MEMS | Elements – E Communication in measuring systems | Elements – F: Signals and Noise | Common Measurands | Test and Evaluation |

Foundations of Measuring

The Process of Measuring
Sophistication of measuring and its body of knowledge Economic considerations of measuring; Humans in the real world; Sub-structure of human-machine systems; Organisation of instrument science; Measures metrics, and their application

Measuring Theory and Philosophy
Introduction to measuring theory and philosophy; Formal measuring theory; Empirical relationship and scales of measuring; Indirect measuring; Applications in physical and behavioural sciences; Fuzzy approaches for measuring; Signals, information and knowledge and meaning; Hierarchical aspects of measurement systems; Typical measuring systems architectures

Environmental Factors
Reduction of influence factors; EMC and EMI

Feedback in Measuring
Nature and scope of closed loop systems; Dynamic behaviour of closed loop systems; Closed loop sampled data systems; Nonlinear closed loop systems

Messaging Theory in Human Communications
Characteristics and theory of knowledge; Principles of Semiotics as related to measuring; Principles of Epistemology as related to measuring

Signal Theory
Introduction to signals in physical systems; Signal classification; Signals in the frequency domain; Signals in the time domain; Relationship between signals in the time and frequency domain; Characteristics of signals; Discrete signal theory; Geometrical signal representation; Coding theory and its application to measuring; Modulation theory

Systems Theory
Systems in the time domain; Systems in the frequency domain; Relationship of time and frequency domain systems and their transforms; Stability issues

Sources of Information on Measurement
Characteristics of Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom; Sources of information; Terminology and Classification of measuring systems; Information databases of relevance to measuring

Measuring Theory and Philosophy
Units


Standards and Calibration

Standards of Measurement
Types of paper standards and their purpose

Calibration
Calibration process; Traceability in measurement and calibration; Calibration interval; Internet calibration


Error and Uncertainty

Errors and Uncertainty
Common sources of error in measuring systems; Explanation of key error and uncertainty concepts and terms; General characterisation of systematic and stochastic errors; Errors in analogue signal systems; Errors in digital signal systems; Uncertainty determination; Uncertainties in general, uncertainties budget and their calculation; Calculation and treatment of errors

Measuring System Specification

Measuring System Specification
Transfer characteristics of instrument stages; Static considerations of general instrumentation; Description of accuracy, linearity, drift; Introduction to the dynamic regime of measuring systems; Zero Order system dynamics; First Order system dynamics; Second Order system dynamics


Measuring System Design

Engineering a Measuring System
Outline of Systems Thinking; Nature of systems design; Phases of system life cycle; Life cycle concept; Principle of concept of operations (ConOps); Setting the system boundaries; Requirements allocation

Design Methodologies
Common design methodologies; Modelling methodology; Mathematical methods of optimisation

Electronic and Electrical Regime
Overview of electrical and electronic technique; Basic electronic components; Electronic system building blocks; Electronic systems design; Limits of detection in electronic systems; Embedded systems; Testing electronic systems

Fine Mechanical Regime
Principles of fine mechanics – kinematic and elastic designs; Principles of fine mechanics – systems considerations; Kinematical regime – members and linkages; Kinematical regime – fasteners, bearings; Kinematical regime – rotary motion; Elastic regime of design – design principles; Elastic regime of design – spring systems; Elastic regime of design – plates and bimorphs; Error sources in fine mechanics

Visible Radiation Regime
Optical materials; Optical elements; Light sources and detectors; Optical Measuring Instruments; Testing optical and other radiation systems

Human Factors Engineering
Need for human factors engineering; Man machine interface; The 6 human factors domains; Design methodology for human factors

Quality in Measuring Systems
Reliability and maintainability; Safety criteria; Terms and concepts of safety; Planning for safety; Introduction to the legal process; Public liability aspects of measuring systems


Modelling Measuring Systems

Modelling Measuring Systems
Models of the measuring process


Elements – A: Sensors

Sensor Fundamentals
Principles of sensor science; Transducer fundamentals; Structure and energy in sensor systems; Classification of sensors; Force-feedback sensors

The Sensing Interface
Models of the measuring system interface; Designing the sensor interface; Selection of sensors; Systematic description of sensors; Signal/energy matrix modelling of sensors

Sensing Technologies
Mixed technology, traditional form, sensors; Fibre optic or optical fibre sensors; Ultrasonic sensors; Ultrasonic instrumentation principles; Ultrasonic instrumentation design



Elements – B Signal Conditioning

Analogue Signal Conditioning
Signals and noise aspects; Amplifiers; Outline of purpose of analog data filters

Electrical Bridges
Electrical bridge circuits - basic information; Balanced DC bridge; Unbalanced DC bridges

AI Signal Processing Techniques
Nature and scope of AI techniques; Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Rule based systems; Genetic Algorithms


Elements – C: Data Acquisition Systems

DAS Components
Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) in general; Quantizing theory relevant to DAS; Sampling theory relevant to DAS; Coding for data converters; Amplifiers and filters for DAS; Digital to Analog (D/A) converters; Analog to Digital (A/D) converters; Integrating type A/D converters; Analogue multiplexers; Sample-hold circuits

Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
DFT and FFTs; Z Transforms; DSP Chipsets; DSP tools; Digital filter categories; Ideal digital filter approximation; General performance of the digital filter; Low and high-pass digital filters; Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filters; Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters; Principles of DSP hardware design

Computers in Measuring Systems
Fundamentals of the stored program digital computer; Single address instruction microcomputer; Internal operation of the microprocessor; External operation of the microprocessor; Memory management in the microprocessor; Data acceleration in computers; Microcontroller systems

Software Aspects in Measuring System Design
Designing and building software for measuring systems; High reliability software systems; Labview; Virtual Instrumentation – a nuclear physics laboratory

Intelligent Measuring Systems
Smart system features

AI Signal Processing Techniques
Knowledge Based Systems

Elements – D: MEMS

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Principles of MEMS; Uses and benefits of MEMS; Principles of actuators


Elements – E Communication in measuring systems

Distributed and Networked Measuring Systems
Introduction to networked instrumentation; Instrument interconnection; Asynchronous and synchronous interfaces; RS 232 and EIA/TIA 232 serial interface; IEEE 488 instrumentation bus; Voltage and current loop transmission; Local Area Networks (LANs); Wide Area Networks (WANs); Fieldbus systems; Scheduling systems


Elements – F: Signals and Noise

Noise and Interference
Typical signals arising in measuring; Comparison of analog and digital signal handling; Noise sources in measuring systems in general; Signal to noise ratio for systems; Noise and noise bandwidth for systems

Signal Recovery in the Presence of Noise
Minimisation of noise in systems; Maximisation of signal/noise ratio for systems; Grounding and shielding; Nature of signals in a noisy regime; Low noise detector designs; Lock-in detectors; Boxcar and multipoint integrators; Correlators; DSP for Low S/N Systems


Common Measurands

Flow Measurement
Overview of flow meters; Differential pressure (DP) flow meters; Calibration and standards in flow measuring

Displacement and Angle Measurement
Displacement and angle sensor performance and selection; Strain gauge based displacement and angle sensors; Miscellaneous displacement and angle sensor; Large Scale Metrology

Temperature Measurement
Characteristics of temperature measuring; Thermocouple temperature sensors; Metallic Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs); Calibration and standards in temperature measurement

Time and Frequency Measurement
Characteristics of time and frequency measurement; Calibration and standards in time measurement

Electrical Quantities Measurement
Voltage measurement; Current measurement; Resistance measurement; Capacitance and inductance measurement

Pressure
Pressure; Pressure Sensor Performance and Selection

Velocity and Acceleration
Characteristics of vibration, shock and motion measurement; Vibration, shock and motion sensor performance and selection; Accelerometer theory; Motion and velocity detectors

Chemical Properties
Characteristics of chemical measurements; Optical transducers for chemical measurements; Optical emission methods in chemical measurements; Mass spectrometry; Chromatography; Electrochemical measurements


Test and Evaluation

Measurement Testing Systems
Accelerated testing; Automatic Test Systems; Test Facilities; Instrument Evaluation